How to connect to WIFI from terminal - wireless on the command line part 1

Connecting to wireless access points completely from the command line in linux using the built-in tools is not actually very complicated. The hardest part about it is turning off whatever "friendly" wireless/network managers your system is already running.

Wireless on the command line

Connecting to wireless access points completely from the command line in linux using the built-in tools is not actually very complicated. The hardest part about it is turning off whatever "friendly" wireless/network managers your system is already running.

Why the command line?

Graphical tools like nm-applet are handy but what they're doing is very opaque. Sometimes you will tell them to connect to an access point but they will ignore you and continue connecting to some other access point that you don't want them to connect to. If you prefer to tell the computer exactly what to do, managing wireless on the command line is actually not that hard or difficult and you gain a lot of transparency into what your computer is doing to avoid frustrating situations tinkering with opaque graphical tools.

Also if you like minimal or tiling windowing managers using a wireless applet by way of something like stalonetray feels really awkward and strange.

turning things off

debian/ubuntu

$ sudo update-rc.d network-manager remove
$ pkill nm-applet
$ sudo service network-manager stop

or if sudo service network-manager stop didn't work, try:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/network-manager stop

If you're using a graphical environment with a panel that automatically spins up something like nm-applet, you'll also need to figure out how to disable that although it won't do anything if network-manager isn't running.

figuring out the interface name

Type iwconfig. You will see a list of interfaces. Ignore all the interfaces that say "no wireless extensions".

The interface name will be wlan0, wlan2 or ath0 or something like that.

This document uses the name wlan0 but you should substitute wlan0 for whichever interface your system reports.

adding passwords

$ sudo su
# wpa_passphrase SSID PASSPHRASE >> /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf

Make sure to use >> and not > or else you will delete all your wireless passwords! It's a good idea to make a backup occasionally:

sudo cp /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf{,.backup}

run wpa_supplicant

scanning for access points

$ sudo iw dev wlan0 scan | grep SSID
    SSID: MEO-876078
    SSID: Thomson249040
    SSID: MEO-089464
    SSID: Solmar - Guests
    SSID: SINDICADO-NACIONAL
    SSID: Solmar

connecting to an access point

To connect to an access point called SSID, do:

$ sudo iw dev wlan0 connect -w SSID

see if you're connected to an access point

Use iwconfig:

$ iwconfig wlan0

When you're connected, you will see something like:

wlan0     IEEE 802.11abgn  ESSID:"Thomson249040"  
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.412 GHz  Access Point: 00:24:17:44:35:28   
          Bit Rate=48 Mb/s   Tx-Power=19 dBm   
          Retry limit:231   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:off
          Link Quality=46/70  Signal level=-64 dBm  
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:170  Invalid misc:134   Missed beacon:0

getting an IP address

Most of the time you'll just need to do:

sudo dhclient wlan0

but sometimes you will get the message:

RTNETLINK answers: File exists

In that case, release the dhcp lease first with -r and then get a lease:

$ sudo dhclient -r wlan0
$ sudo dhclient wlan0

Once dhclient finishes, you're online!

disconnecting

sudo iw dev wlan0 disconnect

see also

The manual setup section of the archlinux wiki is very good but somewhat specific to arch in places.


Quick Info: 
I got my bcm4306 (revision 3) up and running
When I run "iwlist wlan0" scan Im seeing my wireless listed so I know my card is installed correctly.
The problem is i cant get wpa_supplicant configured correctly with my wireless network secured with wpa2.
I also might add that I have dhcp turned off on my router, so this could be the problem.  I dont want to enable dhcp btw.
I also dont want to install or use gui so please dont recommend something that uses gui

my /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf

ctrl_interface=/var/run/wpa_supplicant
ctrl_interface_group=0
ap_scan=1

network={
        ssid="awifi"
        proto=RSN
        key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
        pairwise=CCMP TKIP
        group=CCMP TKIP
        psk=MY KEY WHICH IS CORRECT
}

Resource: http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/WPA … icant.conf

I followed all steps, I got the my network name along with the pass phrase.
Followed the special config instructions for wpa .
booted up the card "ifconfig wlan0 up".
Ensured it was working with "iwlist wlan0 scan".
I found my network listed.

Then I ran

wpa_supplicant -B -Dwext -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf

Next I attempted, "dhcpcd wlan0" I knew this wasnting going to work since I have dhcp disabled on my router, it timed out.

I dont kno what to do next to obtain an ip.

Thanks guys.  I have to get this working I have no choice.  Im using this laptop as my server and I can't use a ethernet cable for ever.

More info...

See also:
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Wireless_network_configuration

*English language article

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